Adaptation for Smallholders to Climate Change
Climate change in Uganda
Uganda has published its Initial National Communication on Climate Change to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2002. Scientific research on the impacts of Climate Change in Uganda is conducted by its oldest University; Ugandan Makerere University. The department of Meteorology in the government of Uganda has a multisectoral board composed of Makerere University, Ministries of Environment, Health and Agriculture.
Main impacts of climate change
In recent years Uganda has experienced frequent and severe droughts in most parts of the country. The incidences have been more pronounced in the western and northeastern parts of the country. Droughts have led to severe food insecurity as well as social conflicts arising from search for pasture and water for animals across local boarders.
The temperature trend analysis shows a sustained warming particularly over southern parts of Uganda with the minimum temperature rising faster than the maximum temperature. Rwenzori has a permanent ice cap, which is vulnerable to global warming. It is known that a 2°C temperature increase would lead to dramatic losses of agricultural land suitable for coffee production.
The energy sector is heavily dependent on biomass resources which contributes to the loss of vegetation cover and land degradation.
Coffee and tea production
Cafédirect's smallholders in the tea sector include Kayonza and Igara, which are under the management of Uganda Tea Development Agency Limited (UTDAL). Kayonza has been suggested to participate in the second round of the risk and opportunity assessments conducted through AdapCC. Mpanga and Mabale are located in the Fort Portal area and they are in close communication and coopration with each other.
Almost all of the coffee industry in Uganda is under the small scale farmers with each farmer averaging 2 acres. The UCDA is a regulatory body that controls policy implementation through farmer groups. UCDA has undertaken research in agro forestry in the coffee sector, using Acacia, Gravellier and Ficus trees. In Uganda, ficus trees are used to make traditional dresses and artworks. Adaptation strategies in Uganda may include the usage of such agro forestry systems. Cafédirect's producer partners in the coffee sector are Gumutindo and Bushenyi Co-ops.
AdapCC supports the producer groups in the elaboration of measures to confront climate change. Those include measures such as an improved management of natural resources but also measures that minimise climate risks. Adaptation strategies also include improving access to financial and technical aid. All measures will include short term and long term solutions.