Adaptation for Smallholders to Climate Change


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How Peruvian coffee farmers adapt to climate change – the CEPICAFE case study

According to the Tyndall Centre Peru is the third country most hit by climate change. Almost the entire agricultural sector is suffering from increasing water stress due to melting glaciers and changing precipitation patterns. The productivity, especially of small-scale agriculture production systems is threatened, and thus the income of smallholder families is at risk.

Please download the complete description of the Peruvian Case Study here (PDF-Document, 1.0 MB).

Between February and April 2008 AdapCC realised the process of Risk and Opportunity Analysis (ROA) together with the pilot group CEPICAFE. The participatory workshops discovered that coffee farmers are suffering from the following risks which threaten their yields and livelihood:

Problem / Risk Root Causes Solutions
1 Drought
  • Less rainfall during flowering and maturation season
  • Increasing temperature
  • Poor irrigation management
  • Poor water distribution
  • Lack of technical irrigation systems and water storage tanks
  • Deforested areas and forest burning practices
  • More efficient water management (trainings on efficient water use, improvement of water distribution at communities, installation of technical irrigation systems)
2 Frostiness and fogs
  • Change of temperature
  • Prolonged rainfall periods
  • Extension of shadow at coffee plantations / poor management practices
  • Old plantations and coffee trees
  • Installation of coffee nurseries at farm level and renovation of coffee plantations
  • Improved shadow management
  • Improved water management at plantation, especially from August to September
  • Adoption of seasonal plantation management
3 Pests and diseases
  • Increase of temperature
  • Climate variability
  • Increased humidity
  • Shadow extension at plantations
  • Lack of organic manure
  • Poor plantation management
  • Poor organisation of farmers
  • Improved pest management
  • Shadow management
  • Manure management
  • Installation of demo plots
  • Training for farmers
4 Erosion and landslides
  • Heavy rainfalls
  • Drought periods
  • High deforestation
  • Plantations lying on steep slopes of the hillsides
  • Lack of measures to prevent landslides and erosion
  • Reforestation
  • Forest protection
  • Soil management to prevent erosion and landslides
  • Technical irrigation systems
  • Trainings and capacity building, demo plots
5 Strong winds
  • Extreme weather events / El Nino
  • Plantations lying on steep slopes of the hillsides
  • Reforestation and avoided deforestation
  • Construction of more stable housing

As a result of the analysis process the following working areas for exemplary adaptation to climate change in the coffee sector for CEPICAFE were defined and implemented between September 2008 and December 2009:

  1. Reforestation and Carbon Sequestration
  2. Capacity Building and Implementation of Integrated Coffee Management Practices

Component Facts and Figures Benefits
1 Reforestation and Carbon Sequestration
  • Reforestation project on 285 ha community land in Choco region, district of Yamango planned
  • Nursery with 50.000 seedlings of native trees and pines installed
  • Carbon project planned: PIN and PDD
  • Carbon project registered under out Carbon Fix Standard
  • After 25 years carbon sequestration of 560.5 t CO2/ha on 285 ha, corresponding to 159,742.5 t CO2 in reforested areas expected
  • Given the price of € 7.5 per carbon credit, earnings of approximately € 275,000 in 25 years expected
  • MoU between CEPICAFE and Cafédirect to pre-sell 5,092 carbon credits for approximately € 60,000 by 2015
  • 10% of earnings from Cafédirect carbon credits will be re-invested in application of 4C climate module with CEPICAFE farmers to adapt to climate change
Degraded lands will be reforested, which will lead to an enhanced resilience of the agro-ecosystem, providing improved water storage capacities and soil fertility.
Forest can reduce the effects of droughts and cold spells.
An additional income from carbon credits for communities is expected over the next 25 years.
Carbon will be stored in the re-planted trees.
The carbon project under the Carbon Fix Standard will promote sustainable forest management practices.
Among the communities environmental awareness may have been raised.
In the long run the implemented activities will help to enhance the resilience of the coffee eco-systems.
Cafédirect will be able to offset the GHG emissions at their offices.
2 Capacity Building and Implementation of Integrated Coffee Management Practices
  • 872 producers in 4 districts (Canchaque, Montero, San Miguel del Faique, Yamango) sensitized for climate change adaptation needs
  • 36 member cooperatives designed their climate change action plans
  • at CEPICAFE level 10 technical advisors trained
  • 50 environmental promoters trained
  • 200 promoter farmers for adaptation measures on coffee farms trained
  • 4 communal native tree nurseries with 45,000 tree seedlings installed in Canchaque, Montero, San Miguel del Faique, Yamango to re-forest community land
  • 10 solar driers installed in Montero to secure coffee drying process
  • 860 farmers produce organic manure and installed living and dead barriers to prevent soil erosion and landslides
  • 200 farmers improved fertilization practices
  • 729 farmers applied integrated pest management measures on their farms
  • Shadow management has been improved on 1,800 ha
  • Some farmers received technical advice and access to financing to improve their technical irrigation systems
The capacities of the member cooperatives and at CEPICAFE to cope with climate change and to strategically make adaptation decisions have been built.
Promoter farmers are enabled to multiply the adaptation and environmental conservation knowledge.
First steps to technically adopt the coffee drying process have been taken. In the long run this will secure the quality of the green coffee for exports.
Applying sustainable practices and the renovation of the coffee plantations enhances their resilience and helps to improve their productivity of the farms.
(The water management practices need to be further improved.